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Table 2 Characteristic of blood and Induced Sputum samples, and EBC chemokines

From: Increased of exhaled breath condensate neutrophil chemotaxis in acute exacerbation of COPD

  Healthy controls Stable COPD patients Exacerbated COPD patients
Outpatients Hospitalized
No of subjects 20 17 16 17
Blood     
Leukocytes (per mL) 5530 (3060) 7825 1420) 8825 (5040)* 12660 (5430)**†
Neutrophils (per mL) 3295 (1940) 4985 (1560) 6670 (5093)** 9090 (6030)**†
% neutrophils 60.1 (7.8) 59.2 (7.6) 76.0 (8.4)**†† 84 (15.2)**†††
% lymphocytes 30.9 (7.3) 28.9 (8.6) 17.0 (10.1)* 10.8 (8.3)**†††
CRP (mg/L) 0.9 (2.1) 3.9 (5.9) 21.4 (83.5)**† 9.2 (49.0)**†
Fibrinogen (g/L) 2.6 (0.6) 3.3 (1.4) 4.9 (2.4)***††† 5.1 (1.7)***†
Induced sputum     
Squamous epithelial cells (%) 24.0 (25.0) 10.0 (10.0) 0.0 (2.0)** 6.0 (21.0)
Total non squamous cell count (x106 cells/g sputum) 0.3 (1.2) 3.7 (6.4)* 13.1 (25.7)** 6.0 (16.5)**
Viability (%) 69.5 (24.8) 78 (16) 86.5 (14.5) 72.5 (29.5)
Neutrophils, % 49.3 (36.1) 81.5 (28.5)* 91.0 (7.6)** 83.5 (25.3)*
Neutrophils count(x103/g sputum) 120.2 (532) 4511.8 (5853)* 11139.0 (24009)** 3523.8 (16974)**
Macrophages, % 32.0 (26.1) 8 (14.7)* 4.5 (7.1)** 6.5 (10.9)**
Eosinophils, % 0.0 (0.6) 2.5 (3.8)* 0.4 (0.6) 0.5 (1)
Lymphocytes, % 1.9 (2.6) 1.0 (1.8) 1.0 (1.0) 1.3(2.8)
Epithelial cells, % 6.8 (21.8) 7.0 (7.9) 1.8 (3.6) 1.1 (7.9)
Exhaled breath condensate     
LTB4 pg/mL 34.0 (28) 74.0 (53)* 66.0 (47.0)** 68 (46)*
GRO-α pg/mL 10.0 (13) 17 (34) 56.1 (49.0)* 45.0 (46.0)*
  1. Data are expressed as medians (IQR), or mean cells counts are expressed as absolute counts per gramme (g) of sputum and as percentages of total inflammatory cells, excluding squamous cells. COPD: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.001, ***p <0.0001 vs healthy subjects, †p <0.05, †† p <0.01, ††† p <0.001 vs stable COPD.