Skip to main content


Springer Nature is making Coronavirus research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Figure 1 | Respiratory Research

Figure 1

From: Tumor necrosis factor-α and muscle wasting: a cellular perspective

Figure 1

Proposed events regulating TNF-α-induced muscle catabolism. TNF-α binding to the type 1 TNF-α receptor (TNFR1) stimulates increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondrial electron transport, thereby activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Subsequently, NF-κB increases activity of the ubiquitin (Ubq)/proteasome pathway, accelerating protein degradation.

Back to article page