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Figure 1 | Respiratory Research

Figure 1

From: Tumor necrosis factor-α and muscle wasting: a cellular perspective

Figure 1

Proposed events regulating TNF-α-induced muscle catabolism. TNF-α binding to the type 1 TNF-α receptor (TNFR1) stimulates increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by mitochondrial electron transport, thereby activating nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). Subsequently, NF-κB increases activity of the ubiquitin (Ubq)/proteasome pathway, accelerating protein degradation.

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