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Table 2 Phenotype of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) knockout mice

From: Matrix metalloproteinases in lung biology

   Phenotype
Gene Lethal Unchallenged Challenged*
Gelatinase-A (MMP-2) No • None [56] • Reduction in angiogenesis and tumor growth [57]
Stromelysin-1 (MMP-3) No • None [58] • Impaired wound contraction [59]
    • Reduced contact hypersensitivity response [60]
    • Accelerated arthritis [58]
Matrilysin (MMP-7) No • Lack of activated antimicrobial peptides [19] Inability to repair mucosal epithelial wounds [39]
    • Reduced ability to kill pathogenic bacteria [19]
    • Reduced tumorigenesis [61]
Gelatinase-B (MMP-9) No • Transient slowing of long bone growth Normal neutrophil extravasation [63]
   secondary to reduced angiogenesis [62] Lack of alveolar brochiolization in fibrosis [45]
    • Resistant to induced blister formation [22,64]
    • Persistent contact hypersensitivity response [60]
    • Protection against aortic aneurysm formation [65]
    • Reduced ventricular enlargement and rupture
    postmyocardial infarction [66,67]
    • Delayed tumor progression and reduced metastases [68]
Stromelysin-3 (MMP-11) No • None [69] • Less chemically induced tumors and reduced tumor
    cell implantation [69]
    • Accelerated and enhanced neointimal formation [70]
Macrophage No • None [53] Reduced elastolytic capacity of macrophages [53]
metalloelastase (MMP-12)    Protection against smoking-induced
    emphysema [54]
    • Reduced ability of macrophages to migrate through
    matrix [53]
MT1-MMP (MMP-14) Yes • Severe skeletal abnormalities [71] • Not yet assessed
  1. *, Assessed in lung.