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Table 1 Transfer of cytokines by adenovirus vector to the rodent lung

From: A new direction in the pathogenesis of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis?

Cytokine Degree of inflammation TGF-β Myofibroblasts Fibrosis
IL-1β Acute +++; alveolar destruction 400 pg/ml +++ ++++
TNF-α Acute +++ 150 pg/ml + +
GM-CSF Acute ++ 600 pg/ml ++ ++
TGF-β1 Minimal to absent >50 ng/ml ++++ ++++
  1. Degree of inflammation ranges from 0 to ++++, with 0 representing no detectable inflammation by morphologic examination to ++++ where there is extensive inflammatory cell accumulation throughout the parenchyma and lumen of the lung. Similar ranges are used for myofibroblast presence and extent of fibrosis. GM-CSF = granulocyte/macrophage colony-stimulating factor; IL = interleukin; TGF = transforming growth factor; TNF = tumour necrosis factor.