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Table 1 Clinical features of the patient group.

From: The TNFalpha gene relates to clinical phenotype in alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency

  Whole group n = 424 Decline group n = 110 Emphysema Bronchiectasis Chronic bronchitis
    Yes n = 279 No n = 70 Yes n = 83 No n = 266 Yes n = 159 No n = 265
Gender (% male) 59.91 66.36 64.16 54.29 57.83 63.67 64.78 57.03
Age (years) 50.01 (0.52) 51.48 (0.92) 51.76 (0.78) 41.52 (33.77–49.27) 54.18 (1.03) 48.90 (0.63) 50.79 (0.77) 49.48 (0.69)
Pack years 14.00 (2.35–25.65) 18.75 (9.01–28.49) 17.50 (7.65–27.35) 0 (0–4.18) 14.63 (4.33–25.93) 13.50 (1.40–24.60) 14.63 (2.55–26.71) 12.75 (0.75–24.75)
FEV1 %predicted 37.15 (18.30–56.04) 35.01 (18.25–51.77) 32.08 (18.94–45.22) 102.88 (80.93–124.83) 36.64 (14.59–58.69) 35.54 (17.39–53.69) 32.76 (15.49–50.03) 38.17 (14.18–62.16)
FEV1/FVC 38.40 (25.95–50.85) 37.30 (27.10–48.40) 35.00 (26.00–44.00) 73.60 (63.10–84.10) 40.10 (24.35–55.85) 37.50 (25.00–48.00) 37.85 (26.85–48.85) 39.40 (26.40–52.40)
KCO %predicted 69.82 (1.18) 68.09 (2.12) 63.18 (1.38) 98.66 (2.55) 67.85 (2.75) 70.57 (1.54) 67.62 (2.31) 71.34 (1.89)
UZVI 31.09 (1.05) 32.84 (1.69) 32.71 (1.02) 2.31 (0.39) 33.45 (1.89) 30.63 (1.27) 32.98 (1.69) 29.88 (1.36)
LZVI 44.59 (1.21) 52.10 (38.53–65.68) 46.78 (1.14) 5.85 (1.01) 54.15 (39.50–68.80) 47.95 (32.15–63.75) 48.85 (34.60–63.10) 49.50 (31.90–67.10)
Decline of FEV1 (ml/yr)   31.3 (4.1)       
  1. Data is presented as mean (SEM) or median (IQR) dependent on its distribution. UZVI = upper zone voxel index, LZVI = lower zone voxel index. The only significant difference between the decline group and the whole dataset was that they had smoked more (p = 0.01).