COX-2 up-regulation mediated by TLR2 in epithelial cellsin vitroand lung tissues of micein vivo. A. HEK293 cells overexpressing pcDNA, TLR2, and TLR4 were inoculated with NTHi, and COX-2 mRNA expression was measured by Q-PCR analysis. Data are means ± SEM (n = 3). *p < 0.05 vs. CON; **p < 0.005 vs. NTHi in HEK293-pcDNA. NS:non-significant vs. NTHi in HEK293-pcDNA; CON: control. B: Wild-type and TLR2 and TLR4 knock-out mice were intratracheally inoculated with 1 × 107 CFU of NTHi, and mRNA expression of COX-2 was measured from the lungs of inoculated mice 6 h after inoculation. Data are means ± SEM (n = 3). *p < 0.05 vs. CON in wild-type mice; **p < 0.05 vs. NTHi in wild-type mice. NS: non-significant vs. NTHi in wild-type mice; CON: control.