Functional analyses of bronchial epithelial spheroids. (A) Videomicroscopy shows ciliary beating associated with rolling of spheroids (see video online). (B). The ciliary beat frequency was similar in spheroids from both COPD and non-COPD smokers (n = 7) both at basal state (Basal) and after LPS stimulation (10 μg/ml LPS for 24 h) (LPS). (C) Representative micrographs of untreated (-LPS) and LPS-treated (+LPS) COPD spheroids showing LPS-enhanced expression of IL-8.