Effect of VEGF on endothelial damage induced by TNF-α and LPS. a) VEGF significantly reduced albumin transfer to the lower chamber that was induced by TNF-α stimulation for 24 h. *p < 0.001 vs control; †p < 0.001 vs TNF-α. b) VEGF significantly inhibited LPS-induced albumin transfer to the lower chamber. *p < 0.001 vs control; †p < 0.002 vs LPS; ‡p < 0.001 vs LPS. n = 12 in each group.