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Table 3 Human studies investigating angiogenic and angiostatic parameters in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (2004–2005)

From: Angiogenesis in Interstitial Lung Diseases: a pathogenetic hallmark or a bystander?

Investigator (year) Tissue samples Sample size IIP Studied Parameters Summary Limitations
Ebina et al. 48 (2004) Lung specimens/7 patients/3 controls IPF Vascular density CD34+, VWF, CXCL8, VEGF Heterogeneous increase in CD34+ alveolar capillaries / Morphologically altered vessels Small sample size / Potential bias vascular density
Simler et al. 56 (2004) Serum samples/49 patients IPF-NSIP-DIP VEGF, CXCL8, ET1 Correlation of angiogenic cytokines with functional and radiological markers of disease severity Heterogeneous group of IIPs / Patients not age and sex matched with controls / Lack of serial radiological data / Limited number of patients
Strieter et al. 58 (2004) BALF-serum samples/32 patients IPF CXCL11 Upregulation of CXCL11 levels in IPF patients after treatment with IFN-γ No correlation with parameters of disease progression p values were not adjusted for multiplicity
Cosgrove et al. 50 (2004) Lung specimens/15 patients/12 controls IPF-COP PEDF-VEGF Elevated PEDF and decreased VEGF levels within the FF. Increased VEGF levels within MB In vitro angiogenic assay is less robust than the in vivo one / Small sample size
Nakayama et al. 55 (2005) BALF samples/27 patients/12 controls IPF-NSIP CXCL5, 10 Increased levels of CXCL5 and decreased levels of CXCL10 in patients with IPF compared to NSIP Discrepancies between BALF and serological data / Limited number of patients
Belperio et al. 52 (2005) Lung specimens/BALF samples/68 patients/47 controls BOS CXCL1, 3, 5, 7, 8 CXCR2 Increased levels of CXCR2/CXCR2 ligands in lung biopsy and BALF samples from patients with BOS Lack of evaluation of the angiostatic CXCR3/CXCR3 ligands axis
Pignatti et al. 57 (2005) BALF and serum samples/47 patients/10 controls IPF-other ILDs CXCR3, CCR4 Correlation of elevated CXCR3 levels with clinical parameters of disease severity in IPF patients Lack of serial data in half of patients / No correlation with several parameters of disease severity / Discrepancies between serum and BALF levels
  1. Abbreviations: BALF: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, COP: Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, DIP: Desquamative Interstitial Pneumonia, FF: Fibroblastic foci, IFN-γ: Interferon gamma, IIPs: Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias, IPF: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, MB: Masson bodies, NSIP: Non-specific interstitial pneumonia, PEDF: Pigment epithelial growth factor, VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor, VWF: Von Willebrand factor