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Table 2 Human studies investigating angiogenic and angiostatic parameters in patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonias (1997–2003)

From: Angiogenesis in Interstitial Lung Diseases: a pathogenetic hallmark or a bystander?

Investigator (year) Tissue samples Sample size IIP Studied Parameters Summary Limitations
Keane et al. 41(1997) Lung specimens/50 patients/54 controls IPF CXCL8, 10 Increased levels of CXCL8,10 that favor angiogenesis Incomplete analysis of the angiogenic network / In vivo micropocket assay
Lappi-Blanco et al.53 (1999) Lung specimens/19 patients IPF-COP VWF, CD34+   Small sample size / Lack of knowledge regarding factors responsible for vascular heterogeneity
Meyer et al. 43 (2000) BALF samples/32 patients/66 controls IPF-CF-SARCO VEGF Decreased VEGF levels in IPF patients Small number of patients / No correlation between serum and BALF levels / No correlation with clinical parameters of disease severity
Keane et al. 42 (2001) Lung specimens/91 patients/78 controls IPF CXCL5 Increased CXCL5 levels in IPF patients Incomplete analysis of the angiogenic network
Lappi-Blanco et al. 54(2002) Lung specimens/19 patients IPF-COP VEGF, bFGF Increased VEGF and bFGF levels in MB compared to FF Small sample size / Lack of knowledge regarding angiostatic regulators
Koyama et al. 44 (2002) BALF samples/49 patients/27controls IPF-PF/CTD-SARCO VEGF Decreased VEGF levels in IPF patients High variability between serum and BALF levels in health and disease
Renzoni et al. 45 (2003) Lung specimens/17 patients/12 controls CFA-SSc Vascular density and distribution Abnormal vascular distribution in areas proximal to gas exchange / Phenotypically altered vessels Morphometric study not suitable to identify the role of angiogenesis in hypoxemia
  1. Abbreviations: BALF: Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, bFGF: basic fibroblast growth factor, CF: Cystic fibrosis, CFA: Cryptogenic fibrosing alveolitis, COP: Cryptogenic organizing pneumonia, FF: Fibroblastic foci, IFN-γ: Interferon gamma, IIPs: Idiopathic Interstitial Pneumonias, IPF: Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis, MB: Masson bodies, NSIP: Non-specific interstitial pneumonia, PF-CTD: Pulmonary fibrosis associated with a connective tissue disease, SARCO: Sarcoidosis, VEGF: Vascular endothelial growth factor