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Table 1 Commonly Accepted Measures and Potential Markers Associated with COPD Exacerbations

From: Markers of exacerbation severity in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Demographics Age; Gender; Height; Weight; Body Mass Index (BMI); Disease Years; Pack-Years.
Spirometry/Respiratory Status Measures Forced Expired Volume in One Second – FEV1 (litres and % predicted); Forced Vital Capacity – FVC (litres and % predicted); FEV1/FVC Ratio; Breathing Rate; Oxygenation Saturation (pulse and arterial); Peak Expired Flow Rate (PEFR); Fraction of Inspired Oxygen (FiO2); Intrinsic PEEP, Arterial Oxygen Tension (PaO2); Arterial Carbon Dioxide Tension (PaCO2); PaO2/FiO2 Ratio; Sputum Production.
Dyspnea Measures Baseline Dyspnea Index (BDI); Translational Dyspnea Index (TDI); Medical Research Council (MRC) Dyspnea Scale; Borg Dyspnea Score; American Thoracic Society (ATS) Dyspnea Score.
Functional Challenge & Quality of Life Measures 6 Minute Walking Distance (6MWD); β2-Agonist Reversibility; Adenosine Monophosphate, Methacholine or Histamine Challenge; St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ).
Haemodynamic Measures Systolic Blood Pressure; Diastolic Blood Pressure; Arterial Blood Pressure; Heart Rate; Cardiac Output.
Electrocardiogram Measures Lead II; Lead aVF; P Wave Axis-degrees.
Blood Electrolyte, pH and Protein Measures Sodium; Potassium; Chloride; Bicarbonate; Glucose; pH; Phosphate; Urea; Albumin; Haemoglobin; Creatinine.
Exacerbation-Related Measures Number of Exacerbations Per Year (or in Past Year); Number of Exacerbations Per Patient-Year; Number of Exacerbations Requiring Oral Corticosteroids Per Patient-Year; Number of Exacerbation Related Infections in Past Year; Days in Hospital; Days Per Patient-Year in Hospital; Days in Intensive Care Unit; Days on Mechanical Ventilation; Number of Unscheduled or Scheduled GP Visits in Past Year; Time to First Exacerbation.
Hospital-Related Measures Number of Admissions in a Year; Number of Admissions Per Patient-Year; Number of Emergency Department Visits in Past Year; Time in the Emergency Department; Number of Patients Hospitalized in Past Year; Number of Patients Readmitted in Past Year; Number of Patients Relapsed in Past Year; Ventilation Type – Non-Invasive Positive Pressure Ventilation (NIPPV), Invasive Mechanical Ventilation (IMV) or Iron Lung; Admission to ICU; Mortality in Intensive Care Unit; Mortality in Hospital; Simplified Acute Physiology II Score (SAPS II); Acute Physiology And Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II); Glasgow Coma Score (GCS).
Reported Comorbidities – Presence/Absence; Number & Percent of Subjects Charlson Comorbidity Index; Cardiovascular Disease; Cor Pulmonale; Congestive Heart Failure/Insufficiency; Coronary Heart Disease; Ischaemic Heart Disease; Cardiac Arrhythmia; Hypertension; Pulmonary Oedema; Cerebrovascular Disease; Renal Disease; Liver Disease; Gastrointestinal Disease; Peripheral Vascular Disease; Endocrine Disease; Diabetes Mellitus; Cancer; Deep Vein Thrombosis; Pulmonary Emboli + Deep Vein Thrombosis; Bronchiectasis; Asthma; Depression; Emphysema; Comorbidity Present, Excluded from Study, or Not Described.
Reported Causes of Exacerbations – Presence/Absence; Number & Percent of Subjects Pneumonia; Sepsis; Bronchospasm; Viral Infection; Bronchial Infection; Infection; Cardiac Insufficiency/Heart Failure; Cardiac Arrhythmia; Pulmonary Emboli; Unknown Cause.
Reported Drug Information – Presence/Absence; Number & Percent of Subjects Beta Agonists – Inhaled, Short-Acting, Long-Acting, Oral/IV Systemic; Corticosteroids – Inhaled, Oral/IV Systemic; Theophylline; Xanthines; Bronchodilators; Anticholinergics; Long-Term Oxygen Therapy (LTOT); Oxygen Supplementation; Beta-Agonist-Corticosteroid & Beta-Agonist-Anticholinergic Combinations; Antibiotics; Mucolytics; Expectorants; Antitussives; Diuretics; Oral Anticoagulants; Patient Compliance.
Bacterial Information – Number of Patients/Number of Isolates S. pneumoniae; H. influenzae; M. catarrhalis; P. aeruginosa; B. catarrhalis; H. parainfluenza; S. aureus; C. pneumoniae; E. coli; OTHER: K. pneumoniae, Enterobacteriaceae, Pseudomonas Species, Alpha-Haemolytic Streptococci, Acinetobacter, M. pneumoniae, Legionella Species.
Viral Information – Number of Patients/Number of Isolates Influenza Virus A & B; Parainfluenza V1, V2 & V3; Adenovirus; Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV); Picornavirus; Rhinovirus; Coronavirus.
Cytological Measures – Local (Sputum, Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL), Biopsy); Systemic (Plasma or Serum) Neutrophils; Macrophages; Eosinophils; Lymphocytes (White Blood Cells).
Biochemical Measures – Local (Exhaled, Sputum, BAL, Biopsy); Systemic (Plasma or Serum) Leukotriene B4 (LTB4); 8-Isoprostane (8IPT); Elastase; Myeloperoxidase (MPO); Secretory Leukoprotease Inhibitor (SLPI); Endothelin-1 (ET-1); Interleukin-8 (IL8); Interleukin-6 (IL6); Interleukin-10 (IL10); Nitric Oxide; Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα); C-Reactive Protein (CRP); Fibrinogen.
  1. Many study variables were measured at or around the time of the exacerbation. If these variables were measured in the stable condition of these COPD patients, i.e., measurements were taken weeks or months prior to the exacerbation, then these were also obtained.