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Table 2 Recurrent wheezing, doctor's diagnosed asthma and any wheezing up to two years of age in relation to exposure to maternal smoking during pregnancy6 and ETS7 with or without maternal smoking during pregnancy.

From: Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of recurrent wheezing during the first years of life (BAMSE)

  N n OR crude 95% CI OR adj8 95 % CI
Recurrent wheezing up to two years of age
No maternal smoking during pregnancy and no exposure to ETS9 3222 246 1   1  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy but no exposure to ETS 135 21 2.2 1.4 – 3.6 2.2 1.3 – 3.6
Exposure to ETS with or without smoking during pregnancy 422 54 1.8 1.3 – 2.4 1.6 1.2 – 2.3
Doctor's diagnosed asthma up to two years of age
No maternal smoking during pregnancy and no exposure to ETS 3224 191 1   1  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy but no exposure to ETS 134 16 2.2 1.3 – 3.7 2.1 1.2 – 3.7
Exposure to ETS with or without smoking during pregnancy 424 37 1.5 1.1 – 2.2 1.4 0.95 – 2.1
Any wheezing up to two years of age
No maternal smoking during pregnancy and no exposure to ETS 3207 855 1   1  
Maternal smoking during pregnancy but no exposure to ETS 135 50 1.6 1.1 – 2.3 1.7 1.2 – 2.4
Exposure to ETS with or without smoking during pregnancy 422 142 1.4 1.1 – 1.7 1.3 1.0 – 1.6
  1. 6 Maternal smoking of one cigarette a day or more.
  2. 7 Maternal tobacco smoking during the first months of life and/or at one year of life.
  3. 8 Adjusted for heredity, defined as asthma and/or allergic rhino- conjunctivitis diagnosed by a doctor and in combination with reported allergy to furred pets and/or pollen in one or both parents (reported asthma medication was required for asthma diagnosis), maternal age and length of exclusive breast feeding.
  4. 9 Reference category: no maternal smoking during pregnancy and no exposure to ETS.