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Table 5 Prediction of reflux symptoms at age 26 years by history of airway hyperresponsiveness.

From: Associations between respiratory symptoms, lung function and gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms in a population-based birth cohort

     Heartburn Regurgitation Heartburn and regurgitation
Challenge agent Age n % with AHR OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p OR (95% CI) p
Methacholine* 9 716 16.9 1.40 (0.81, 2.43) 0.234 1.22 (0.55, 2.73) 0.623 1.51 (0.63, 3.61) 0.354
  11 677 10.8 1.62 (0.84, 3.11) 0.150 1.89 (0.80, 4.48) 0.147 3.00 (1.22, 7.40) 0.017
  13 637 8.3 1.63 (0.76, 3.51) 0.210 1.78 (0.66, 4.82) 0.253 2.92 (1.04, 8.17) 0.041
  15 743 8.3 1.92 (1.00, 3.70) 0.051 2.94 (1.35, 6.42) 0.007 3.86 (1.66, 8.97) 0.002
  21 795 7.7 2.59 (1.38, 4.85) 0.003 4.61 (2.26, 9.40) <0.001 5.56 (2.53, 12.2) <0.001
Salbutamol 18 758 7.8 1.01 (0.46, 2.21) 0.978 1.13 (0.39, 3.29) 0.818 1.14 (0.34, 3.85) 0.836
  1. At age 18 years, responsiveness to salbutamol bronchodilator was measured. At ages 9, 11, 13, 15 and 21 years responsiveness to methacholine was measured unless a low FEV1 precluded methacholine challenge. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) was defined as a PC20 methacholine of 8 mg/mL or less or an increase in FEV1 of 10% or bronchodilator. OR = odds ratio, 95% CI = 95% confidence intervals. Analyses are by logistic regression using reflux symptoms as the dependent variables and are adjusted for sex.