Primary human small airway epithelial cells (SAEC) were treated for 24 hr with cigarette smoke extract (0.2–1.0%) prepared from 1R3F research grade cigarettes and TNF-α was used as a positive control (10 ng/ml). Cells were harvested, and supernatants were collected for the measurement of IL-8 and IL-6 levels by sandwich ELISA. CSE treatment dose-dependently induced the release of both IL-8 and IL-6 from human SAEC. Data represent mean ± SEM of 3 individual experiments. ***p < 0.001 compared to control values. CSE: cigarette smoke extract.