Skip to main content


Figure 3 | Respiratory Research

Figure 3

From: Differential effects of cigarette smoke on oxidative stress and proinflammatory cytokine release in primary human airway epithelial cells and in a variety of transformed alveolar epithelial cells

Figure 3

Cigarette smoke extract induced necrosis with no or little evidence of apoptosis in human adenocarcinoma cells (A549). Human adenocarcinoma cells (A549) were treated with media alone (control) and various concentrations of CSE; a) control, b) CSE (1.0%), c) CSE (2.5%), d) CSE (5.0%), e) CSE (7.5%), f) CSE (10%) for 24 hr. Results are mean of 3 experiments ± SEM. #p < 0.01, and §p < 0.001 compared with control group. L = Live; A = Apoptosis; N = Necrosis.

Back to article page