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Table 3 Maintenance treatment at discharge (%) in relation to two-year mortality (ICS = inhaled corticosteroids, LABA = long-acting beta-2-agonists)

From: Mortality in COPD patients discharged from hospital: the role of treatment and co-morbidity

  Alive Dead p-value Hazard risk ratio*
No ICS or LABA 13.4 30.4 <0.0001 1
ICS without LABA 22.1 19.1 0.51 0.30 (0.12–0.73)
LABA without ICS 14.5 7.8 0.07 0.45 (0.23–0.89)
Both ICS and LABA 50.5 42.6 0.15 0.47 (0.26–0.84)
Short acting beta-2-agonists MDI** 34.5 39.1 0.39 1.27 (0.78–2.08)
Ipratropium MDI** 33.8 38.4 0.38 1.07 (0.65–1.74)
Theophylline** 26.1 30.4 0.38 0.79 (0.48–1.30)
Nebulised beta-2-agonists and/or ipratropium** 27.2 49.1 0.0001 1.38 (0.83–2.28)
Long-term oxygen 20.8 30.3 0.03 1.07 (0.62–1.84)
  1. * adjusted for age, sex, centre, smoking, FEV1, previous hospitalizations, SGRQ total score, co-morbidity and the variables in the tables
  2. ** entered separately into the model