Skip to main content

Advertisement

Table 2 Mortality risks in GOLD stages 0–4 stratified for smoking status and gender*

From: Mortality in GOLD stages of COPD and its dependence on symptoms of chronic bronchitis

  Smoker*** Former smoker*** Never smoker***
Men N* Deaths RR** CI P-value N* Deaths RR CI p-value N* Deaths RR CI p-value
Ref 4430 1205     2993 517     2792 404    
Gold 0 215 92 1.65 1.32–2.08 <0.0001 54 17 1.75 1.05–2.43 0.033 49 6 1.03 0.46–2.31 0.95
Gold 1 792 269 1.13 0.98–1.29 0.087 405 68 0.80 0.61–1.05 0.10 246 51 1.31 0.97–1.76 0.080
Gold 2 710 309 1.41 1.31–1.70 <0.0001 173 44 1.16 0.81–1.66 0.43 127 32 1.73 1.18–2.54 0.005
Gold 3 101 63 2.42 1.84–3.18 <0.0001 33 18 2.42 1.44–4.08 0.001 15 7 3.93 1.86–8.30 <0.0001
Gold 4 27 21 3.57 2.23–5.71 <0.0001 8 4 2.59 0.83–8.07 0.10 7 2 1.04 0.15–7.39 0.97
Women
Ref 2174 256 1    993 87 1    2539 168 1   
Gold 0 108 17 1.64 0.98–2.73 0.060 25 1 0.53 0.07–3.79 0.53 42 7 3.12 1.46–6.67 0.003
Gold 1 184 39 1.75 1.22–2.51 0.002 46 2 0.23 0.03–1.65 0.14 106 8 0.83 0.37–1.87 0.64
Gold 2 234 52 1.75 1.27–2.42 0.001 32 5 1.48 0.59–3.67 0.40 50 7 2.11 0.99–4.52 0.054
Gold 3 36 19 5.11 3.09–8.45 <0.0001 5 1 NA    7 2 3.91 0.96–15.8 0.056
Gold 4 9 6 10.26 4.53–23.25 <0.0001 0 0 NA    3 1 18.10 2.53–129.6 0.0004
  1. * Individuals with self-reported baseline comorbidity (current/previous cancer, stroke, angina pectoris, heart infarction or diabetes) were excluded. GOLD stage 4 were not analysed due to low number of cases. The reference group consists of individuals without chronic bronchitis and with normal pulmonary function.
  2. ** HR denotes hazard ratio with CI 95% confidence interval.
  3. *** In smokers adjustments were made for age, inhalation habits (yes/no) and tobacco consumption (>=20 g/<20 g tobacco). In former and never-smokers adjustments were made for age only.