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Table 1 Characteristics of the study population*

From: Mortality in GOLD stages of COPD and its dependence on symptoms of chronic bronchitis

  Men Women
Number (n) 14 630 7414
Smoker 7221 (49.4) 2961 (39.9)
Exsmoker 3942 (26.9) 1169 (15.8)
Never-smoker 3467 (23.7) 2961 (39.9)
Age 46.4 (5.7) 47.5 (7.8)
Follow-up time 22.2 (5.7) 20.2 (4.7)
Person-years 352 324 150 050
Deaths 3674 (25.1) 832 (11.2)
Reference** 10215 (69.8) 5706 (77)
Not classif*** 1453 (9.9) 821 (11.0)
Gold 0 318 (2.2) 175 (2.4)
Gold 1 1443 (9.9) 336 (4.5)
Gold 2 1010 (6.9) 316 (4.3)
Gold 3 149 (1.0) 48 (0.6)
Gold 4 42 (0.3) 12 (0.2)
Comorbidity**** 676 (4.6) 489 (6.6)
  1. * Data are given as numbers (%), but age and follow-up time are given as years (mean, standard deviation). ** Normal pulmonary function, without symptoms of chronic bronchitis
  2. *** Not-classif: individuals not classified as normal or categorized according to the GOLD stages.
  3. **** Self-reported previous/current stroke, angina pectoris diagnosed by a physician, diabetes, hospitalization due to a heart infarction or a diagnosis of cancer at baseline.