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Table 5 Mean annual change in FEV1 per pack-year to 1991 and per pack of cigarettes smoked per day between 1991 and 2002 by degree of airway obstruction in 1991

From: Accelerated decline in lung function in smoking women with airway obstruction: SAPALDIA 2 cohort study

  Term Annual change in mL per pack-year to 1991 Annual change in mL per packs per day between 1991 and 2002
   Coef 95%CI p value Coef 95%CI p value
FEV1/FVC>0.7†        
Men (n = 692) Linear -0.1 -0.3, 0.1 0.48 -8.8 -14.1, -3.5 0.001
   Women (n = 659) Linear 1.4 0.8, 2.0 <0.001 -12.2 -18.1, -6.4 <0.001
  Quadratic -0.04 -0.06, -0.03 <0.001 na na na
  Cubic 0.0004 0.0002, 0.0005 <0.001 na na na
FEV1/FVC<0.7†        
Men (n = 127) Linear -0.2 -0.6, 0.2 0.36 -12.9 -25.0, -0.7 0.04
   Women (n = 67) Linear -0.9 -2.2, 0.5 0.21 -39.4 -69.1, -9.6 0.01
  Quadratic 0.02 0.01, 0.04 0.009 na na na
  1. † P values for interaction between high and reduced FEV1/FVC with packs per day: men = 0.07 women = 0.002
  2. na: no association with polynomial terms
  3. Effects estimated from regression models with same covariates as in Table 3