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Table 1 mRNA profile of cytokine and chemokine gene expression of primary culture of human type II pneumocytes 3 h and 6 h after infection with A/Hong Kong/483/97 (H5N1/97), A/Vietnam/1194/04, A/Vietnam/3046/04 (both H5N1/04) and A/Hong Kong 54/98 (H1N1) influenza viruses denoted as fold increase compared to mock infected cells.

From: Proinflammatory cytokine responses induced by influenza A (H5N1) viruses in primary human alveolar and bronchial epithelial cells

Gene products Ratio of expression over mock-infected cells
  3 hours post infection 6 hours post infection
  483/97 (H5N1/97) (-■-)c 1194/04 (H5N1/04) (--)c 3046/04 (H5N1/04) (-×-)c 54/98 (H1N1) (-▲-)c 483/97 (H5N1/97) (-■-)c 1194/04 (H5N1/04) (--)c 3046/04 (H5N1/04) (-×-)c 54/98 (H1N1) (-▲-)c
Interleukin 1 -1.2 0.3 0.9 1.1 1 0.9 0.8 -1.3
Interleukin 6 9.3*a 15.1*b 9.9*a 7.4*a 17.4*b 19.2*b 15.4*b 8.8*a
Interleukin 8 1 0.9 1.1 -1.2 -1.2 1.6 1.3 1.3
MCP-1 1.1 0.8 1.5 1 -1.2 1.7 1.3 1.3
TNF alpha Not detectable Not detectable
RANTES -1 9.5*a 2.2* 1.55 18.7*b 24.1*b 16.9*b 6.9*a
Interferon-alpha 1.1 0.8 0.6 1.2 -1.3 1.3 0.9 1.2
Interferon-beta 3.7*a 8.5*a 4.7*a -0.8 22.1*b 26.3*b 18.7*b 13.3*b
IP-10 3.9*a 7.9*a 6.3*a -3.5 37.9*b 46.8*b 29.7*b 8.1*a
  1. Signals were normalized to the housekeeping gene, β-actin and expressed as a ratio over mock infected cells.
  2. *Upregulation by two or more times over that of mock infection.
  3. ap < 0.01 and bp < 0.001 (Bonferroni multiple-comparison test).
  4. c Corresponding character symbols as shown in Figure 3 and 4.