IP-10, Interleukin-6 and RANTES production by primary human bronchial and alveolar epithelial cells infected with A/Hong Kong/483/97 (H5N1/97), A/Vietnam/1194/04, A/Vietnam/3046/04 (both H5N1/04) and A/Hong Kong 54/98 (H1N1) influenza viruses or in mock infected cells. Culture supernatants from influenza virus-infected human respiratory epithelial cells collected at 3 h, 6 h and 24 h after infection with H5N1 and H1N1 viruses were tested by ELISA for IP-10 (Figure 8), Interleukin-6 (Figure 9) and RANTES (Figure 10). The IP-10, Interleukin-6 and RANTES mRNA levels were assayed at 3 h and 6 h post infection (data not shown) with results comparable with that shown in figure 5 and 7. The results from bronchial epithelial cells represent the means and standard deviations of three independent experiments (from the same donor). The means and standard deviations of the results from alveolar epithelial cells are based on experiments from six separate donors. * indicates p < 0.01 compared with mock and ** indicates p < 0.05 compared with H5N1/97 and H1N1 infected cells using the Bonferroni multiple comparison test.