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Table 3 Relation between different levels of exposure to ETS and respiratory symptoms/diagnosis among adult non-smokers in Aleppo-Syria (n = 1118)

From: Extent of exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and its dose-response relation to respiratory health among adults

  ETS score*  
Self-reported respiratory symptoms/diagnoses middle high P Dose-response
General respiratory symptoms    
Past year recurrent cough (≥ 3 recognizable episodes) 1.3 (0.8–1.9) 1.9 (1.2–2.9) 0.004
Past year recurrent shortness of breath (≥ 3 recognizable episodes) 1.6 (1.1–2.3) 1.7 (1.1–2.6) 0.001
Past year recurrent exertional shortness of breath that disappears after rest 1.8 (1.2–2.7) 2.0 (1.3–3.2) <0.001
Past year recurrent shortness of breath almost all the time 3.0 (1.3–6.8) 2.6 (1.1–6.3) 0.02
Symptoms/diagnosis suggestive of asthma    
Past year wheezing/whistling in the chest 1.4 (0.8–2.2) 1.7 (1.0–2.8) 0.05
Past year recurrent episodic dry cough accompanied by wheezing/whistling 1.9 (1.0–3.7) 1.9 (0.9–3.9) 0.05
Past year recurrent nocturnal cough, not related to colds, that wakes the subject up 1.2 (0.7–1.9) 1.9 (1.1–3.2) 0.02
Past year recurrent episodic shortness of breath accompanied by wheezing 2.2 (1.1–4.4) 1.6 (0.7–3.7) 0.06
Ever diagnosed asthma 1.8 (1.2–2.8) 1.4 (0.9–2.4) 0.1
Hay fever (nasal allergy symptoms with eye itching and watering) 0.9 (0.6–1.3) 1.5 (0.9–2.3) 0.01
Symptoms/diagnosis suggestive of chronic bronchitis    
Productive cough that lasts most of the winter 1.2 (0.7–2.2) 1.6 (0.8–2.9) 0.2
Recurrent shortness of breath accompanied by cough and phlegm 2.2 (1.1–4.7) 2.5 (1.1–5.6) 0.02
Ever diagnosed chronic bronchitis/emphysema 1.1 (0.5–2.2) 1.2 (0.5–2.7) 0.6
Symptoms/diagnosis suggestive of respiratory infection    
Past year recurrent cough accompanying upper respiratory infections (cold, flue) 1.0 (0.7–1.6) 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 0.1
Past year recurrent cough with bloody phlegm 1.1 (0.5–2.6) 1.4 (0.6–3.4) 0.7
Past year sinusitis 1.0 (0.6–1.7) 1.7 (1.0–2.9) 0.09
Past year diagnosed acute lower respiratory infection (bronchitis, pneumonia) 1.3 (0.7–2.3) 1.9 (1.1–3.6) 0.03
  1. * Odds ratio and 95% confidence interval for the relation between ETS score tertiles (lower being referent) and respiratory symptoms/diagnosis according to multivariate logistic regression adjusted for age, gender, SES score, hay fever, parental allergy, pack-years (for ex-daily smokers), occupational exposure to respirable pollutants other than ETS