Beneficial bacteria and budesonide modulate cytokine mRNA expression in lung tissue of chronically asthmatic mice. Data is shown as mean ± SEM, n = 6 mice/group, of the cytokine mRNA expression levels in OVA-sensitised, Sal-challenged (OVA/Sal; white bars) mice and OVA-sensitised, OVA-challenged (OVA/OVA; black bars) mice treated with PBS (A), B. breve (B), budesonide (C) or L. rhamnosus (D). The results are presented as mRNA expression levels relative to levels found in the OVA/Sal-PBS mice (white bars in figure A). Statistical significance of differences was tested using the post hoc Bonferroni’s multiple comparison test after one-way ANOVA. #Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the OVA/Sal-PBS group. ¤Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the OVA/OVA-PBS group. ‡Statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) compared to the OVA/Sal group in each treatment group.