Skip to main content

Table 2 Multinomial regression models for factors associated with frequent emergency department visits for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

From: Frequent utilization of the emergency department for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  2 (vs. 1) ED visits ≥ 3 (vs. 1) ED visits
Variables Odds ratio (95% CI) P value Odds ratio (95% CI) P value
Age, y   <0.001   <0.001
 40-54 years 1 [reference]   1 [reference]  
 55-64 years 1.15 (1.09-1.22) <0.001 1.31 (1.23-1.39) <0.001
 65-74 years 1.14 (1.07-1.22) <0.001 1.11 (1.03-1.20) 0.006
 75-84 years 1.05 (0.98-1.12) 0.10 0.86 (0.79-0.93) <0.001
 85 years and older 0.90 (0.83-0.97) 0.03 0.58 (0.52-0.64) <0.001
Male sex 1.04 (1.00-1.08) 0.048 1.12 (1.07-1.17) <0.001
Race/ethnicity     
 Non-hispanic white 1.15 (1.08-1.21) <0.001 1.32 (1.23-1.41) <0.001
 Non-hispanic black 1.17 (1.09-1.27) <0.001 1.59 (1.46-1.73) <0.001
 Hispanic 1 [reference]   1 [reference]  
 Other 1.07 (0.96-1.19) 0.29 1.07 (0.96-1.19) 0.33
Insurance status     
 Medicare 1.58 (1.47-1.69) <0.001 2.10 (1.92-2.29) <0.001
 Medicaid 1.77 (1.64-1.92) <0.001 2.92 (2.66-3.20) <0.001
 Private 1 [reference]   1 [reference]  
 Self-pay 1.11 (1.00-1.23) 0.046 1.05 (0.92-1.20) 0.45
 Other 1.46 (1.32-1.62) <0.001 1.78 (1.57-2.02) <0.001
Quartiles for median household income of patient’s ZIP code   
 1 (lowest) 1.13 (1.07-1.20) <0.001 1.29 (1.21-1.38) <0.001
 2 1.11 (1.05-1.18) <0.001 1.22 (1.14-1.31) <0.001
 3 1.08 (1.01-1.14) 0.01 1.14 (1.06-1.22) <0.001
 4 (highest) 1 [reference]   1 [reference]  
Patient residence     
 Counties of ≥ 1 million population 1.07 (1.00-1.15) 0.06 1.09 (1.01-1.18) 0.03
 Counties of 250,000-999,999 population 1.07 (1.00-1.15) 0.07 1.09 (1.00-1.18) 0.06
 Counties of 50,000-249,999 population 1.09 (1.00-1.20) 0.06 1.10 (0.99-1.23) 0.09
 Counties of < 50,000 population 1 [reference]   1 [reference]  
State     
 California 1.01 (0.98-1.05) 0.44 1.06 (1.02-1.11) 0.006
 Florida 1 [reference]   1 [reference]  
Selected comorbidities*     
 Congestive heart failure 1.17 (1.11-1.22) <0.001 1.24 (1.17-1.30) <0.001
 Pulmonary circulation disorders 1.41 (1.22-1.64) <0.001 1.39 (1.17-1.64) <0.001
 Diabetes, uncomplicated 1.05 (1.01-1.10) 0.02 1.13 (1.07-1.19) <0.001
 Obesity 0.99 (0.94-1.05) 0.79 0.97 (0.91-1.03) 0.31
 Depression 1.21 (1.14-1.28) <0.001 1.38 (1.30-1.47) <0.001
 Psychoses 1.17 (1.09-1.27) <0.001 1.27 (1.17-1.38) <0.001
 Drug abuse 1.22 (1.09-1.37) <0.001 1.66 (1.48-1.85) <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ED emergency department, CI confidence interval.
  2. Bold results are statistically significant.
  3. *Non-significant Elixhauser comorbidity measures across the frequency groups included peripheral vascular disease, hypertension, neurological disorders, diabetes with complications, liver disease, peptic ulcer disease, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, lymphoma, solid tumor without metastasis, coagulopathy, fluid and electrolyte disorders, anemia, and alcohol abuse.