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Table 1 Demographic and Comorbidities of Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), according to the number of COPD-related emergency department visits in one year

From: Frequent utilization of the emergency department for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

  1 ED visit 2 ED visits ≥ 3 ED visits  
Variables* (n = 69,398) (n = 17,005) (n = 11,877) P value
Age (y), median (IQR) 69 (58–79) 69 (59–78) 67 (58–76) <0.001
 40-54 years 11,922 (17) 2595 (15) 2010 (17) <0.001
 55-64 years 14,807 (21) 3815 (22) 3288 (28)  
 65-74 years 17,049 (25) 4575 (27) 3287 (28)  
 75-84 years 16,788 (24) 4160 (24) 2441 (21)  
 85 years and older 8832 (13) 1860 (11) 851 (7)  
Male sex 30,633 (44) 7632 (45) 5527 (47) <0.001
Race/ethnicity     <0.001
 Non-hispanic white 51,557 (74) 12,746 (75) 8713 (73)  
 Non-hispanic black 6349 (9) 1702 (10) 1577 (13)  
 Hispanic 7715 (11) 1732 (10) 1068 (9)  
 Other 2484 (4) 569 (3) 337 (3)  
 Missing 1303 (2) 256 (2) 182 (2)  
Insurance status     
 Medicare 46,174 (67) 11,829 (70) 7793 (66) <0.001
 Medicaid 8092 (12) 2417 (14) 2413 (20)  
 Private 7931 (11) 1299 (8) 729 (6)  
 Self-pay 4322 (6) 71 (4) 431 (4)  
 Other 2870 (4) 699 (4) 508 (4)  
Quartiles for median household income of patient’s ZIP code   <0.001
 1 (lowest) 22,390 (32) 5749 (34) 4415 (37)  
 2 19,307 (28) 4800 (28) 3325 (28)  
 3 15,904 (23) 3797 (22) 2497 (21)  
 4 (highest) 10,524 (15) 2308 (14) 1372 (12)  
 Missing 1273 (2) 351 (2) 268 (2)  
Patient residence     <0.001
 Counties of ≥ 1 million population 42,303 (61) 10,245 (60) 7123 (60)  
 Counties of 250,000-999,999 population 17,379 (25) 4319 (25) 2983 (25)  
 Counties of 50,000-249,999 population 4103 (6) 1053 (6) 750 (6)  
 Counties of < 50,000 population 5590 (8) 1335 (8) 956 (8)  
State     0.02
 California 33,741 (49) 8297 (49) 5942 (50)  
 Florida 35,657 (51) 8708 (51) 5935 (50)  
 Any comorbidities 54,633 (79) 13,888 (82) 9644 (81) <0.001
Selected comorbidities§     
 Congestive heart failure 13,607 (20) 3831 (23) 2708 (23) <0.001
 Pulmonary circulation disorders 674 (1) 269 (2) 198 (2) <0.001
 Diabetes, uncomplicated 14,813 (21) 3931 (23) 2939 (25) <0.001
 Obesity 7195 (10) 1935 (11) 1437 (12) <0.001
 Depression 6357 (9) 1886 (11) 1479 (12) <0.001
 Psychoses 3233 (5) 1001 (6) 847 (7) <0.001
 Drug abuse 1430 (2) 458 (3) 528 (4) <0.001
  1. Abbreviations: COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, ED emergency department, IQR interquartile range.
  2. *Data were expressed as n (%) unless otherwise indicated.
  3. Unadjusted comparisons were tested using chi-square test unless otherwise indicated.
  4. Unadjusted comparison was tested using Kruskal-Wallis test.
  5. §Comorbidity was defined as at least 1 Elixhauser comorbidity measure.