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Table 1 Participant characteristics (year 0 of the CARDIA study)

From: The vitamin E isoforms α-tocopherol and γ-tocopherol have opposite associations with spirometric parameters: the CARDIA study

  Blacks Whites Total P value
Number of participants 2289 (50.6%) 2237 (49.4%) 4526  
Male 1032 (49.4%) 1057 (50.6%) 2089 0.14
Female 1257 (51.6%) 1180 (48.4%) 2437
Mean age, years (SD) 24.3 (3.8) 25.5 (3.4) 4526 <0.0001
Current smoker 782 (34.2%) 611 (27.3%) 1393 <0.0001
Past smoker 210 (9.2%) 397 (17.8%) 607
Non-smoker 1297 (56.7%) 1229 (54.9%) 2526
Ever reported asthma 493 (21.5%) 427 (19.1%) 920 0.04
BMI, kg/m2 (SD) 25.48 (5.63) 23.71 (4.05) 4526 <0.0001
FEV1 (liters) [2SD Range] 3.28 [1.90-4.66] 3.83 [2.30-5.36] 4526 <0.0001
% predicted FEV1 (SD) 98.2 (12.7) 97.6 (10.7) 4526 0.06
FVC (liters) [2 SD Range] 3.93 [2.21-5.66] 4.68 [2.67-6.69] 4526 <0.0001
% predicted FVC (SD) 101.0 (12.4) 100 (10.6) 4526 0.002
FEV1/FVC (%) 83.72 82.36 4526 <0.0001
Median household income (study year 5) $25,000-34,999 $35,000-49,999 3806 <0.0001
Years of education (SD) 13.03 (1.82) 14.59 (2.38) 4526 <0.0001