Participant flow chart. Of the 5115 participants recruited into CARDIA, 1 dropped out. Of the 5114 CARDIA remaining participants, 4827 participated in YALTA and had year 0 tocopherol measurements in the CARDIA database. Of the 4827, participants were excluded from the analysis if they were missing data for spirometry at year 0 (n = 243), missing data for smoking, body mass index, or height (n = 46) or self-reported having chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 12) (Figure 2). After these exclusions, there were 4526 participants in the analytic sample. Of these, 920 study participants self-reported as ever having asthma and/or being treated for asthma at any of the 7 visits (Table 1). For our analysis, there were 4,526 participants after excluding participants with COPD or excluding participants that lacked data for tocopherol levels, spirometry, BMI, height or smoking.