Smad 2/3 expression and activation in monocytes. The indicated monocytes were isolated and treated with CSD (or control peptide) as described in the Methods (Smad Western blots). TGFβ indicates TGFβ-treated Normal monocytes. Smad 2/3 expression and activation (i.e. pSmad 2/3 levels) were evaluated by Western blotting (50 μg total protein per lane). The data shown are the average ± s.e.m. in arbitrary units of the densitometric quantification of three independent experiments with cells from different subjects. The levels of Smad 2/3 and pSmad 2/3 in Normal monocytes treated with control peptide (normalized against the GAPDH loading control) were set to 100 arbitrary units. Indications of statistical significance for TGFβ-treated Normal monocytes and SSc monocytes are versus Normal monocytes. The indication of statistical significance for TGFβ-treated Normal monocytes treated with CSD is versus TGFβ-treated Normal monocytes treated with control peptide.