Treatment with sivelestat alters cytokine and growth factor levels in BAL fluid 48 hr after secondary challenge. The levels of (A) IL-4, (B) IL-5, (C) IL-13, (D) TGF-β1, (E) Eotaxin, (F) KC, and (G) MIP-2 in BAL fluid were measured. The results for each group are expressed as the mean ± SD. (n = 16 in each group). *Significant differences (P<0.05) between PBS/OVA/vehicle/OVA and OVA/OVA/vehicle/OVA. #Significant differences (P < 0.05) between OVA/OVA/vehicle/OVA and OVA/OVA/Sivelestat/OVA.