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Table 1 Prevalences of asthma symptoms by cooking method

From: High prevalence of asthma symptoms in Warao Amerindian children in Venezuela is significantly associated with open-fire cooking: a cross-sectional observational study

Written questionnaire Total (n, %) Gas (n, %) Gas and wood (n, %) Wood (n, %) p-value
Wheezing “ever” (n = 631*) 266 (42) 46 (37) 78 (38) 142 (47) 0.09
Wheezing in last 12 months (n = 627) 164 (26) 19 (15) a** 40 (20) ab 105 (35) b <0.01
Diagnosed Asthma (n = 591) 108 (18) 20 (17) 34 (18) 54 (19) 0.87
Exercise-induced wheeze last year (n = 621) 89 (14) 9 (7)a 17 (9)a 63 (21)b <0.01
Nocturnal cough last year (n = 608) 163 (27) 29 (24) 50 (25) 84 (29) 0.51
Number of wheezing episodes last year (n = 626)      <0.01
 0 463 (74) 104 (85) a 163 (80) a 196 (65) b  
 1-3 119 (19) 16 (13) a 37 (18) a 66 (22) a  
 4-12 34 (5) 3 (2) ab 2 (1) b 29 (10) a  
 More than 12 9 (1) 0 (0) a 1 (0) a 8 (3) a  
Sleep disturbance due to wheezing last year (n = 620)      0.07
 Never 535 (86) 114 (94) 176 (88) 245 (82)  
 Less than once a week 77 (12) 6 (5) 23 (12) 48 (16)  
 Once or more than once a week 8 (1) 1 (1) 1 (1) 6 (2)  
  1. * n represents the number of cases in which an answer other than “unknown” was recorded on the questionnaire.
  2. **Pairwise post-hoc comparisons: the same letters in the same row indicate absence of significant statistical difference by the Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test, as appropriate. For example the prevalence of “Wheeze in last 12 months” in the “Gas” group (a) was not statistically significantly different from the prevalence in the “Gas and Wood” group (ab) while it was significantly lower than the prevalence observed in the children in the “Wood” group (b).
  3. Significant p-values are indicated in bold.