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Table 2 Baseline characteristics of patients (pre-matching cohort)

From: Long-acting beta-agonists reduce mortality of patients with severe and very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a propensity score matching study

  All patients Comparison of LABA (+) and (−) cohorts
   LABA (−) LABA (+) P
N 591 292 299  
Age (year) 66.6 ± 5.3 66.9 ± 5.2 66.4 ± 5.3 0.208
Sex (female) 209 (35.4%) 93 (31.8%) 116 (38.8%) 0.074
Race (not white) 33 (5.6%) 20 (6.8%) 13.0 (4.3%) 0.185
Annual income < 30000 $ 304 (51.4%) 155 (53.1%) 149 (49.8%) 0.429
FEV1 (%predicted) 26.7 ± 7.1 26.8 ± 7.1 26.7 ± 7.0 0.780
FEV1 (mL) 777 ± 240 782 ± 237 772 ± 243 0.456
FEV1/FVC (%) 31.2 ± 6.3 30.9 ± 6.0 31.5 ± 6.6 0.358
FVC (%predicted) 67.2 ± 15.1 68.0 ± 15.3 66.5 ± 14.9 0.346
FVC (mL) 2545 ± 782 2582 ± 772 2509 ± 791 0.225
Forced residual capacity (mL) 6042 ± 1311 6111 ± 1323 5975 ± 1298 0.243
Hb adjusted DLCO 8.1 ± 3.1 8.1 ± 3.0 8.0 ± 3.1 0.761
Peak pulmonary arterial pressure (mmHg) 33.7 ± 6.2 (N = 502) 34.2 ± 6.1 (N = 252) 33.3 ± 6.3 (N = 250) 0.110
Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.4 ±1.3 14.4 ± 1.2 14.3 ± 1.3 0.905
PaO2 (mmHg) 64.2 ± 10.0 64.0 ±10.0 64.4 ± 10.0 0.838
PaCO2 (mmHg) 43.1 ± 5.8 43.6 ± 6.1 42.6 ± 5.4 0.083
Area of emphysema (%) 16.1 ± 10.6 (N = 532) 15.7 ± 11.1 (N = 259) 16.4 ± 10.2 (N = 273) 0.228
Body mass index (kg/m^2) 24.7 ± 3.5 24.7 ± 3.6 24.8 ± 3.5 0.503
Six-minute walk distance 368 ± 96 366 ± 95 370 ± 98 0.562
St. George respiratory questionnaire 53.6 ± 12.7 54.1 ± 12.6 53.1 ± 12.7 0.394
Shortness of breath questionnaire 63.3 ± 18.5 63.8 ± 18.1 62.7 ± 18.9 0.483
Beck depression inventory 9.3 ± 5.9 9.2 ± 5.8 9.3 ± 5.9 0.650
Recent emergency visit 75 (12.7%) 38 (13.0%) 37 (12.4%) 0.816
Recent hospital stay 48 (8.1%) 26 (8.9%) 22 (7.4%) 0.492
LTOT during sleep 414 (70.1%) 206 (70.5%) 208 (69.6%) 0.794
LTOT on exertion 465 (78.7%) 233 (79.8%) 232 (77.6%) 0.513
Oral corticoid 153 (25.9%) 76 (26.0%) 77 (25.8%) 0.939
Inhaled corticosteroid 447 (75.6%) 211 (72.3%) 236 (78.9%) 0.059
Short-acting beta-agonist 515 (87.1%) 264 (90.4%) 251 (83.9%) 0.019
Anticholinergic agent 486 (82.2%) 242 (82.9%) 244 (81.6%) 0.686
Theophylline 238 (40.3%) 124 (42.5%) 114 (38.1%) 0.282
Diuretics 86 (14.6%) 41 (14.0%) 45 (15.1%) 0.728
  1. Parameters were compared with Wilcoxon rank sum test or Chi-square test.
  2. LABA: long-acting beta-agonist.
  3. FEV1: forced expiratory volume in one second.
  4. FVC: forced vital capacity.
  5. Hb adjusted DLCO: hemoglobin adjusted diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide.
  6. PaO2: pressure of oxygen in artery.
  7. PaCO2: pressure of carbon dioxide in artery.
  8. LTOT: long-term oxygen therapy.