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Table 2 LABAs and LAMAs in development for combination therapies

From: Combination bronchodilator therapy in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Therapy LABA/LAMA Manufacturer Dosage Time to onset Trough FEV1(difference from placebo)
Formoterol LABA Mercka Twice daily 5 min [26] 50–90 mL [26]
4.5 μg (MDI) and 12 μg (DPI)
Indacaterol LABA Novartis Once daily 150 and 300 μg (EU) (DPI) [20] 5 min [22] 130–180 mL (p < 0.001) [22]
Indacaterol LABA Novartis Once daily 75 μg (US) (DPI) [21] 5 min [22] ≥120 mL (p < 0.001) [23, 33]
Olodaterol LABA Boehringer Ingelheim Once daily 5 and 10 μg (Respimat®) Not available 61–132 mL (p < 0.01) [24]
Vilanterol LABA GSK Once daily 25 and 50 μg (DPI) Median 6 min [25] 137–165 mL (p < 0.001) [25]
Aclidinium LAMA Almirall/Forest Laboratories Twice daily 200–400 μg (DPI) 10–30 min [27, 28] 86–124 mL (p < 0.0001) [29]
Glycopyrronium LAMA Novartis Once daily 50 μg (DPI) 5 min [19, 34] 91–108 mL (p < 0.001) [30, 34]
Glycopyrrolate LAMA Pearl Therapeutics Twice daily 36 μg (MDI) 5 min [19] Statistically superior to placebo (p < 0.0001) [31]
GSK233705 LAMA GSK Twice daily 200 μg Not available 130 mL (p < 0.001) [32]
Tiotropium LAMA Boehringer Ingelheim Once daily 18 μg (DPI) and 5 μg (via SMI) 15 min [18] 120–150 mL (p < 0.001) [18]
Umeclidinium (GSK573719) LAMA GSK Once daily Not available Not available
  1. aOther companies are developing formoterol as part of a fixed-dose combination.
  2. PubMed and European Respiratory Society and American Thoracic Society congresses were searched for abstracts relating to LAMA/LABA therapies known to be in development as part of a combination. As trials were carried out in different patient populations and there were differences in background medications allowed/utilized, no direct comparisons can be made.
  3. DPI = dry powder inhaler; LABA = long-acting β2-agonist; LAMA = long-acting muscarinic antagonist; MDI = metered dose inhaler; SMI = Soft Mist™ Inhaler.