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Table 1 GOLD guidelines (2013): pharmacologic therapies for stable COPDa[[9]]

From: Combination bronchodilator therapy in the management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

Patient group 1st choice 2nd choice Alternative
A: GOLD 1-2 Short-acting anticholinergic prn OR SABA prn LAMA OR LABA OR SABA and short-acting anticholinergic Theophylline
Low risk of exacerbation, less symptoms
B: GOLD 1-2 LAMA OR LABA LAMA and LABA SABA and/or short-acting anticholinergic
Low risk of exacerbation, more symptoms Theophylline
C: GOLD 3-4 ICS + LABA OR LAMA LAMA and LABA OR LAMA and PDE-4 inhibitor OR LABA and PDE-4 inhibitor SABA and/or short-acting anticholinergic
High risk of exacerbation, less symptoms Theophylline
D: GOLD 3-4 ICS + LABA and/or LAMA ICS and LABA and LAMA OR ICS + LABA and PDE-4 inhibitor OR LAMA and LABA OR LAMA and PDE-4 inhibitor Carbocysteine
High risk of exacerbation, more symptoms SABA and/or short-acting anticholinergic
    Theophylline
  1. From the Global Strategy for Diagnosis, Management and Prevention of COPD 2013, Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD), http://www.goldcopd.org.
  2. aMedications in each box are mentioned in alphabetical order, and, therefore, not necessarily in order of preference.
  3. prn = as needed; SABA = short-acting β2-agonist; LABA = long-acting β2-agonist, LAMA = laong-acting muscrannic antagonist; ICS = inhaled corticosteroid; PDE = phosphodiesterase.