Exposure to CSE specifically and rapidly reduces TLR3 gene expression in a differentiated human Mø cell line. THP-1 cells differentiated using PMA & vitamin D3 for 48 hours were cultured in complete medium alone or with various concentration of CSE for an additional 4 hr, then analyzed by quantitative real-time RT-PCR. Data are mean ± SEM of four independent experiments, expressed as dRn (relative to differentiated THP-1 cells cultures in complete medium alone). A, TLR3; B, TLR7; C, TLR8; D, TLR9; E, RIG-1; F, MDA-5; G, PKR. Kruskal-Wallis one-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. *, p < 0.05, compared to cells that did not receive CSE exposure.