Lung CD8+ T cells from COPD subjects have increased production of IFN-γ and TNF-α than CD8+ T cells from subjects without COPD. A-D, CD8+ T cells were isolated from lung tissue of smokers without COPD (S, n = 5) for comparison to CD8+ T cells from subjects with COPD (n = 7) and cultured with anti-CD3ε plus Pam3CSK4 for 48 hours. Supernatants were measured using multiplex beads for (A, E) IFN-γ, (B, F) TNF-α, and (C, G) IL-13 and (D, H) CCL3. (A-D) Results are expressed as the fold change in protein concentration over the control stimulated with anti-CD3ε alone (represented by dashed line) or (E-H) as absolute values of protein. Bars represent the mean ± SEM. The Mann–Whitney t-test was used to compare control versus COPD subjects. *, p < 0.05, compared to the control.