Stimulation of TLR2/1 on lung CD8+ T cells increases production of IFN-γ TNF-α and CCL3. CD8+ T cells were isolated from lung tissue of COPD patients (n = 7) and cultured for 48 hours with anti-CD3ε alone or with addition of specific ligands for the following TLRs (in parentheses): Pam3CSK4 (TLR2/1), HKLM (TLR2), LPS (TLR4), and Flagellin (TLR5). Supernatants were measured using multiplex beads for (A, E) IFN-γ, (B, F) TNF-α, (C, G) IL-13, and (D, H) CCL3. (A-D) Results are expressed as the fold change in protein concentration over the control stimulated with anti-CD3ε alone (represented by dashed line) or (E-H) as absolute values of protein. Bars represent the mean ± SEM. Kruskal-Wallis One-way ANOVA was used to look for differences between groups. *, p < 0.05, compared to the control.