Percentage of CD8+ T cells expressing bacterial TLRs is increased in COPD subjects. Lung tissue was dispersed and stained with monoclonal antibodies to measure TLR expression on CD8+ T cells (left panels), CD4+ T cells (middle panels), or CD56+ NK cells (right panels) from smokers without COPD (S; blue circles; n = 10) and with COPD (COPD; red circles; n = 18). The vertical axis shows the percentage of cells expressing a given TLR. Open circles represent individual patients. Lines represent the mean ± SEM. The Mann Whitney t-test was used to determine significant differences between groups. *, p < 0.05, **, p < 0.01.