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Table 1 Onset of action of available LABAs and LAMAs

From: COPD symptoms in the morning: impact, evaluation and management

Agent Dosing regimen,μg Range of increase in FEV1at 5 minutes post-dose versus placebo Time to peak bronchodilation
LABAs    
Indacaterol [29, 30] 150 q.d. 300 q.d. 110–130 mL (both doses) Approx. 2 hours
Salmeterol [31] 50 b.i.d. 60 mL Approx. 2 hours
Formoterol [29, 32] 12 b.i.d. 24 b.i.d 120–140 mL (both doses) Approx. 2 hours
LAMAs    
Aclidinium [34] 200 b.i.d 400 b.i.d Approx. 70 mL Approx. 105 mL Approx. 2 hours
Tiotropium [30, 42] 18 q.d. 45–70 mL Approx. 2 hours
Glycopyrronium [42] 50 q.d 87 mL Approx. 2 hours
  1. b.i.d = twice daily; FEV1 = forced expiratory volume in 1 second; LABAs = long-acting β2-agonists; LAMAs = long-acting muscarinic antagonists; q.d. = once daily.