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Table 4 Studies assessing biomarkers for their potential to provide clinically relevant information

From: Pulmonary biomarkers in COPD exacerbations: a systematic review

  Assessed biomarkers
Clinical variables  
Symptoms at ECOPD onset FeNO[14], EBC: H2O2[28], IS: IL-6[53], Nasal wash: IL-6[46], IL-8[46]
Clinical severity EBC: CysLTs[29], H2O2[29], 8-isoprostane[29], LTB4[29], PGE2[29]
SS: lactoferrin[40], LL-37[40], lysozyme[40], NE[31, 38], SLPI[40]
Large airway secretions: IL-8[65], TNF-α[65]
PFTs FeNO[10, 12, 13, 20]
EBC: CysLTs[29], H2O2[29], 8-isoprostane[29], IL-8[25], LTB4[29], MPO[23], PGE2[29], pH[13], SLPI[23]
IS/SS: IL-6[63], IL-8[63]
ABG analysis FeNO[13]
EBC: pH[13]
Prediction of clinical outcomes  
Symptomatic recovery SS: IL-8[39, 41], NE[39], TNF-α[39]
Length of hospital stay FeNO[12]
Causal diagnosis FeNO[18]
SS: IL-1β[48], IL-8[38, 46, 48], LL37[40], lysozyme[40], NE[38, 39], SLPI[40], TNFα[38, 39, 48]
IS: IL-6[54, 56, 57], IL-8[5557], LTB4[57], MPO[55, 57], NE[56], TNF-α[5557]
IS/SS: IL-1β[59], IL-8[63, 64], TNF-α[64]
NW: IL-6[46]
BAL: IL-6[68], IL-8[68], NE[68]
Response to treatment FeNO[10, 15]
EBC: Cys-LTs[29], H2O2[29], IL-6[31], 8-isoprostane[29, 31], LTB4[29], PGE2[29], TNFα[24, 36]
IS: IL-8[15], TNFα[15, 34, 36]
  1. Abbreviations: ABG arterial blood gas, BAL bronchoalveolar lavage, Cys-LTs cysteinyl-leukotrienes, EBC exhaled breath condensate, FeNO: fractional exhaled nitric oxide, H 2 O 2 hydrogen peroxide, IL interleukin, IS/SS induced and spontaneous sputum analyzed in conjunction, LTB4 leukotriene B4, MPO myeloperoxidase, NE neutrophil elastase, PFTs pulmonary function tests, PGE 2 prostaglandin E2, SLPI secretory leukoprotease inhibitor, SS spontaneous sputum, TNFα tumor necrosis factor alpha.