The antifibrotic effects of preventive treatment with AF-1 on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. (A). Experimental design 3: The preventive treatment with AF-1 (2 mg · kg-1 · day-1) was performed from D0 to D27. The therapeutic treatment with AF-1 (2, 5 or 10 mg · kg-1 · day-1) was performed from D11 to D27. On D28, mice were killed and lung samples were collected for further analysis. (B) The histopathologic examination was determined by hematoxylin-eosin (H&E) staining (upper panel ) and Masson staining (lower panel) (×200, Scale bar = 100 μm). (C). Ashcroft score was used to evaluate the degree of fibrosis. (D). Collagen content was estimated by hydroxyproline assay. Survival rate (E) and Weight loss (F) were also monitored in the preventive treatment. n = 5–16. Bars: mean ± SD . *P ≤ 0.05 vs BLM group.