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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study sample and comparison with patients lost to follow-up

From: TNF-α is associated with loss of lean body mass only in already cachectic COPD patients

  Women (n = 159) Men (n = 249) Lost to follow-up (n = 69) p**
Age, mean years (SD) 62.3 (6.7) 64.2 (7.0) 66.8 (5.9) <0.01
  FFMI, mean kg/m2 (SD) 14.8 (2.4) 18.4 (3.0) -  
  FMI, mean kg/m2 (SD) 10.1 (4.3) 7.3 (2.5) -  
  % cachectic* 31.0 27.5 37.3 0.10
Smoking habits, n(%)     0.32
  ex 88 (55.3) 144 (57.8) 43 (62.3)  
  current 71 (44.7) 105 (42.2) 26 (37.7)  
GOLD stage     <0.01
  II 82 (51.6) 111 (44.6) 22 (31.9)  
  III 66 (41.5) 105 (42.2) 31 (44.9)  
  IV 11 (6.9) 33 (13.2) 16 (23.2)  
Hypoxemia, n(%)     <0.01
  PaO2 > 9 kPa 84 (61.3) 150 (64.4) 26 (44.1)  
  PaO2 8–9 kPa 33 (24.1) 56 (24.0) 17 (28.8)  
  PaO2 < 8 kPa 20 (14.6) 27 (11.6) 16 (27.1)  
Exacerbations last year, n(%)     0.01
  0-1 126 (79.3) 214 (85.9) 50 (72.5)  
  2+ 33 (20.7) 35 (14.1) 19 (27.5)  
Charlson Comorbidity Index     <0.01
  1 101 (63.5) 130 (52.2) 30 (43.5)  
  2 40 (25.2) 59 (23.7) 15 (21.7)  
  3 13 (8.2) 36 (14.5) 12 (17.4)  
  4+ 5 (3.1) 24 (9.6) 12 (17.4)  
Use of inhaled steroids     0.19
  No 40 (25.2) 88 (35.3) 17 (24.6)  
  Yes 119 (74.8) 161 (64.7) 52 (75.4)  
Use of long-acting beta2 agonists     0.07
  No 33 (20.8) 80 (32.1) 13 (18.8)  
  Yes 126 (79.2) 169 (67.9) 56 (81.2)  
Use of theophyllin     0.02
  No 144 (90.6) 228 (91.6) 58 (84.1)  
  Yes 15 (9.4) 21 (8.4) 11 (15.9)  
CRP, mean ug/mL (SD) 2.4 (3.1) 2.4 (2.7) 2.5 (2.5) 0.35
TNF-α mean pg/mL (SD) 1.8 (3.4) 1.8 (3.3) 1.2 (2.5) 0.12
IL-1ß, mean pg/mL (SD) 0.8 (2.0) 1.0 (2.2) 1.0 (2.1) 0.77
IL-6, mean pg/mL (SD) 2.2 (6.8) 2.2 (5.5) 1.4 (2.7) 0.32
  1. *defined as FFMI < 14 kg/m2 for women and <17 kg/m2 for men.
  2. **for difference between baseline and lost to follow up; chi square for categorical variables and Kruskal Wallis test for continuous variables.