A Cytokine expression in whole-lung homogenates 16 hours after i.t. K. pneumoniae challenge. Shown are 9 cytokines of a 32-plex bead array analysis which were significantly induced by infection. Pretreatment with inhaled FP significantly attenuated the expression of IP-10, IL-6, and TNF-α 16 hours after infection. n = 6 per group. * p < 0.05 vs. vehicle. B Cytokine expression by murine AM before and 4 hours after in vitro stimulation with K. pneumoniae. While most cytokines measured showed up-regulation in response to K. pneumoniae, prior exposure to inhaled FP attenuated the expression of the majority of these. n = 6 per group. * p < 0.05 vs. vehicle + Klebs.