Indacaterol, roflumilast and combination effects on TNFα -induced cytokines GM-CSF, CCL5 and CXCL10 from NHLF. (A) Data represents the mean ± SEM inhibition of indacaterol for GM-CSF (open circle), CCL5 (open square) or CXCL10 (open triangle) released from NHLF compared to vehicle treated cells following stimulation with TNFα (10 ng/mL, 24 h), n = 6. (B-D) Data represents the mean ± SEM inhibition of GM-CSF (B), CCL5 (C) or CXCL10 (D) released from NHLF compared to vehicle-treated cells following stimulation with TNFα (10 ng/mL, 24 h). The open circles represent roflumilast (n = 8 donors), open square represents indacaterol at 0.1 nM (n = 8 donors) and closed circles represent roflumilast in the presence of 0.1 nM indacaterol (n = 4 donors). INDA: indacaterol. **p < 0.01, ***p < 0.001 as compared to roflumilast alone.