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Table 2 Activation of Nrf2 by Components of the Natural Oil Preparation

From: Antioxidant components of naturally-occurring oils exhibit marked anti-inflammatory activity in epithelial cells of the human upper respiratory system

Component* Relative Luciferase Activity**
  Mean SEM
Medium Control 7.0 0.6
Soy Oil Vehicle 7.5 0.5
Sulforaphane (100 um) 41.8† 1.3
Mixed Oil Preparation 40.8† 5.2
Coconut Oil (20%) 6.6 0.8
Orange Oil (5%) 52.5† 9.2
Aloe Oil (5%) 5.7 0.7
Peppermint Oil (0.75%) 5.7 0.9
Vitamin E (0.25%) 5.0 0.7
  1. Mean values from 4 separate experiments in which duplicate cultures were treated.
  2. *Individual oil percentages represent v/v in soy oil: treatment duration = 15 min, except sulforaphane = 12 hr.
  3. **Activation of Nrf2 expressed as relative luciferase luminescence per mg cellular protein.
  4. †Significantly increased above Medium Control value, P < 0.001, Mann-Whitney Rank Sum Test.