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Table 6 Comparison of the annualized medication cost ($US/person) between the "Most costly" COPD patients and the remainder.

From: Determinants of elevated healthcare utilization in patients with COPD

Pharmacological classification "Most costly"* (n = 98) The remainder (n = 291) P value
Total 709 (420 - 1171) 340 (191 - 636)  
R- Respiratory System 242 (118 - 400) 154 (56 - 330) 0.01
C- Cardiovascular System 78 (24 - 151) 15 (1 - 61) <0.001
A- Alimentary Tract & Metabolism 48 (18 - 103) 9 (2 - 35) <0.001
J- General Antiinfectives for Systemic Use 17 (12 - 31) 12 (6 - 17) <0.001
B- Blood and Blood Forming Organs 14 (3 - 42) 1 (0 - 5) <0.001
N- Nervous System 11 (3 - 40) 4 (1 - 16) <0.001
   N02- Analgesics 3.5 (1.5 - 8.5) 1.3 ( 0.3 - 3.5) <0.001
   N05, N06- Psycholeptics, Psychoanaleptics 0.8 (0 - 8.6) 0.2 (0 - 3.7) 0.02
M- Musculo-Skeletal System 5 (2 - 25) 4 (1 - 12) 0.01
H- Systemic Hormonal Preparations, Excluding Sex Hormones 4 (1 - 11) 1 (0 - 4) <0.001
D- Dermatologicals 4 (1 - 10) 2 (0 - 7) 0.002
G- Genitourinary System & Sex Hormones 3 (0 - 69) 1 (0 - 17) 0.05
S- Sensory Organs 3 (1 - 11) 1 (0 - 5) <0.001
L- Antineoplastic and Immunomodulating Agents 0 (0 - 0) 0 (0 - 0) 0.001
P- Antiparasitic Products, Insecticides and Repellants 0 (0 - 0) 0 (0 - 0) <0.001
  1. Values are presented as median (25 - 75 percentiles).
  2. * The "most costly" patients are those whose annualized utilization cost was within the upper 25 percentile.
  3. Mann-Whitney U test.