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Table 5 Comparison of total cost elements between the "Most costly" COPD patients and the remainder.

From: Determinants of elevated healthcare utilization in patients with COPD

  "Most costly"*(n = 98) The remainder (n = 291) P value
Annualized Total Cost 9681 ± 6475 1899 ± 1185 <0.001
(US$/person) 7692 (6365 - 9892) 1632 (949 - 2660)  
Hospitalization 4129 ± 3549 607 ± 745 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 3147 (1567 - 6061) 352 (0 - 875)  
Annualized Days/person 10.4 ± 10.7 1.4 ± 1.7 <0.001
  7.4 (3.6 - 13.8) 0.8 (0 - 2.0)  
Annualized 2.4 ± 1.9 0.5 ± 0.6 <0.001
Admissions/person 1.9 (1.0 - 3.0) 0.2 (0 - 0.6)  
Average Length 4.3 ± 2.4 3.4 ± 2.2 <0.001
Days/Admission 3.7 (3.0 - 4.9) 3.0 (2.0 - 4.0)  
Surgeries 2557 ± 2817 268 ± 565 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 1991 (477 - 4166) 0 (0 - 238)  
Annualized 0.4 ± 0.3 0.1 ± 0.1 <0.001
Number/person 0.4 (0.2 - 0.6) 0 (0 - 0.2)  
Diagnostic procedures 676 ± 444 357 ± 264 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 631 (339 - 849) 289 (161 - 506)  
Annualized 8.6 ± 4.9 5.5 ± 3.4 <0.001
Number/person 7.4 (5.2 - 12.2) 4.8 (3.0 - 7.2)  
Consultations 278 ± 180 174 ± 124 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 256 (141 - 381) 157 (77 - 240)  
Annualized 9.1 ± 6.0 5.7 ± 4.0 <0.001
Visits/person 8.2 (4.4 - 12.6) 5.0 (2.4 - 8.0)  
Emergency Room Visit 108 ± 121 40 ± 51 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 59 (29 - 147) 29 ( 0 - 59)  
Annualized 0.7 ± 0.8 0.3 ± 0.3 <0.001
Visits/person 0.4 (0.2 - 1.0) 0.2 (0 - 0.4)  
Medication 1856 ± 5855 432 ± 327 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 709 (420 - 1171) 340 (191 - 636)  
Annualized Number of 109.8 ± 51.3 63.8 ± 45.4 <0.001
Prescriptions/person 104.1 (72.4 - 139.2) 53.0 (30.0 - 93.6)  
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD and median (25-75 percentiles).
  2. * The "most costly" patients are those whose annualized utilization cost was within the upper 25 percentile.
  3. Mann-Whitney U test.