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Table 3 Characteristics of adult COPD patients (n = 389)- Comparison between the "Most costly" patients and the remainder.

From: Determinants of elevated healthcare utilization in patients with COPD

Variable "Most costly"* The remainder P value
N 98 291  
Age (yrs) 70 (65 - 77) 67 (58 - 76) 0.003
Males (%) 84.7% 75.3% 0.05§
BMI (kg/m2) 27 (24 - 30) 27 (24 - 31) 0.74
Pack yrs smoking (yrs) 50 (35 - 80) 50 (29 - 75) 0.10
FEV1 (% predicted) 44 (33 - 56) 49 (38 - 61) 0.03
GOLD class 3 or 4 62.2% 51.2% 0.06§
Number of morbidity conditions 6 (4 - 8) 3 (1 - 4) <0.001
Age adjusted CCI 9 (7 - 11) 5 (3 - 8) <0.001
Education (yrs of schooling) †, 12 (8 - 12) 10 (4 - 12) 0.07
  Low 83% 80%  
Income¶, Average 10% 10% 0.85§
  High 7% 10%  
PSQI†, 13 (7 - 16) 11 (6 - 16) 0.48
SGRQ†, 67.7 (43.5 - 77.1) 57.7 (41.8 - 72.3) 0.17
HUI3†, 0.6 (0.3 - 0.7) 0.7 (0.3 - 0.8) 0.13
  1. Abbreviations: BMI- body mass index, FEV1- forced expired volume in one second (as percent predicted), GOLD- global initiative for chronic obstructive lung disease, CCI- Charlson Comorbidity Index, PSQI- Pittsburgh sleep quality index, SGRQ- St Georges Respiratory Questionnaire, HUI3- health utilities index mark 3.
  2. * The "most costly" patients are those whose annualized utilization cost was within the upper 25 percentile; median (25-75 percentiles); Mann-Whitney U test; § Chi-square test; This indicator was calculated on the subsample of 177 patients; Self reported income levels were defined as Low/Average/High relative to the average monthly income ($2,160/month).