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Table 1 Comparison of total cost elements between COPD patients and matched controls.

From: Determinants of elevated healthcare utilization in patients with COPD

  control
(n = 1167)
COPD
(n = 389)
P value*
Annualized Total Cost 1634 ± 2480 3823 ± 4794 <0.001
(US$/person) 652 (225 - 2013) 2200 (1139 - 4934)  
Hospitalization 410 ± 1083 1474 ± 2428 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 0 (0 - 352) 615 (106 - 1614)  
Surgeries 564 ± 1309 825 ± 1789 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 0 (0 - 477) 0 (0 - 675)  
Diagnostic procedures 222 ± 256 440 ± 349 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 133 (40 - 316) 348 (184 - 607)  
Consultations 89 ± 94 201 ± 148 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 59 (24 - 124) 171 (88 - 271)  
Emergency Room Visit 33 ± 51 56 ± 80 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 27 (0 - 55) 29 ( 0 - 59)  
Medication 297 ± 1042 790 ± 3031 <0.001
Annualized Costs ($US/person) 104 (28 - 288) 414 (220 - 725)  
  1. Values are presented as mean ± SD and median (25-75 percentiles).
  2. * Mann-Whitney U test.