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Table 3 Symptoms of eczema in the past 12 months - summary of ecological analyses*.

From: Which population level environmental factors are associated with asthma, rhinoconjunctivitis and eczema? Review of the ecological analyses of ISAAC Phase One

Ecological Issue Specific Factor 13-14 Year Age Group 6-7 Year Age Group
   Direction of effect P Value Direction of effect P Value
Economic development GNP + 0.05 + 0.02
Diet Calories from cereals and rice % - 0.246 - 0.767
  Protein from cereals and nuts % - 0.028 - 0.07
  Starch g/d - 0.560 - 0.058
  Vegetables g/d - 0.001 - 0.157
  Vegetable Vitamin A μ/d - 0.001 - 0.153
  Trans fatty acids + < 0.0001   
Immunisation Local immunisation rates for DTP# - 0.048 - > 0.05
  Local immunisation rates for measles - 0.036 - > 0.05
TB exposure TB notification rates, WHO + 0.544   
Outdoor climate Latitude 0 > 0.05 + > 0.05
  Altitude + > 0.05 + > 0.05
  Mean annual temperature - > 0.05 - > 0.05
  Annual variation in mean temperature + < 0.05 + > 0.05
  Lowest monthly mean temperature - > 0.05 - < 0.05
  Annual variation in mean relative humidity - > 0.05 - > 0.05
  Lowest monthly mean relative humidity - > 0.05 - > 0.05
Indoor climate Mean annual relative humidity - > 0.05 - < 0.05
  Lowest monthly mean relative humidity 0 > 0.05 - > 0.05
Tobacco smoking Tobacco consumption, ≥ 15 yrs + 0.35 + 0.87
  Tobacco smoking, women + 0.42 + 0.17
  Tobacco smoking, men - 0.007 - 0.67
Pollen Total grass pollen count - 0.15   
  Days with high pollen counts - 0.32   
Antibiotic usage Antibiotic sales per capita - 0.46   
Air pollution PM10 - 0.07 - 0.10
Paracetamol Per capita paracetamol sales + < 0.0005 + 0.001
  1. *standardized for GNP. Where p values are recorded as > 0.05 the non significant p values were not provided in the source publication. #DTP = Diphtheria and tetanus toxoids and pertussis.
  2. Blank space = data not collected. + = positive association. - = inverse association. 0 = no association.