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Table 4 Distribution of systemic biomarkers by severity of COPD according to GOLD criteria *.

From: Systemic inflammation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: a population-based study

  Mild COPD
(n = 177)
Moderate COPD
(n = 128)
Severe COPD
(n = 19)
p
Male (%) 67.8 82.0 84.2 0.012
Age (yr) 62 (54-70) 67 (58-73) † 70 (66-74) † 0.003
BMI (Kg/m2) 27.4 (4.7) 28.5 (4.7) 28.7 (6.4) 0.107
Smoking status     0.135
   Never smoker 37.6 37.5 21.1  
   Former smoker 37.9 46.1 63.2  
   Current smoker 24.3 16.4 15.8  
Smoking exposure (packs-year) 30 (20-47) 45 (30-60) ‡ 40 (22-54) 0.001
C-reactive protein (mg/l) 3.0 (2.0-5.0) 3.0 (2.0-6.0) 2.0 (2.0-12.0) ‡ 0.007
TNF-alpha (pg/ml) 10.0 (7.0-14.0) 11.0 (8.0-18.0) † 11.0 (5.0-14.0) 0.017
IL-6 (pg/ml) 1.9 (1.9-3.0) 1.9 (1.9-7.0) 3.0 (1.9-16.0) † 0.008
IL-8 (pg/ml) 2.0 (0.7-7.8) 2.0 (0.7-10.0) 7.0 (0.9-11.0) 0.323
Alpha-1 antitrypsin (g/l) 1.47 (1.27-1.72) 1.47 (1.32-1.73) 1.59 (1.38-1.83) 0.706
Fibrinogen (g/l) 3.46 (1.04) 3.63 (1.11) 3.73 (1.17) 0.305
Albumin (g/l) 45.36 (2.54) 45.41 (3.03) 44.67 (3.51) 0.571
Nitrites/nitrates (nmol/l) 26.3 (20.8-38.1) 23.3 (19.1-31.2) 27.1 (17.7-61.8) 0.048
  1. * Values are mean (SD) or median (interquartile range) depending on the distribution. Abbreviations: TNF = tumour necrosis factor; IL = interleukin. Comparisons between groups by ANOVA with Bonferroni test: † p < 0.05 vs. mild COPD; ‡ p < 0.01 vs. mild COPD; p < 0.05 vs. moderate COPD; § p < 0.01 vs. moderate COPD.